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Country Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Email A U.S. federal appeals court has rejected an attempt to strike down a long-contested stem cell patent held by the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF). The Santa Monica, California–based Consumer Watchdog (CW) had hoped to invalidate the patent, which it says puts a burden on California’s taxpayer-funded research by requiring licensing agreements to use the cells, but on 4 June the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit ruled that CW isn’t involved in work on human embryonic stem cells and, thus, can’t challenge the patent in court.The patent, awarded in 2006, involves creating an in vitro culture of human embryonic stem cells. CW challenged it and two other WARF stem cell patents, but the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) upheld the patents in 2008. Last year, CW appealed its challenge to the federal circuit court, claiming that the isolation of these cells was an obvious, incremental step beyond existing techniques. In a brief to the court, CW’s attorney, Dan Ravicher of the Public Patent Foundation, also cited the Supreme Court’s June 2013 decision in the Myriad Genetics case that human genes are “products of nature” and cannot be patented. The appellate court didn’t address either of those issues. Instead, Circuit Judge Randall Rader wrote in the decision that CW lacks the legal “standing” required to bring a case against WARF.“We are very disappointed with and obviously disagree with the ruling,” Ravicher told ScienceInsider in an e-mail. He added that CW will “consider its options” for the next step. But time is running out, because the patent will expire in early 2015. The case was a test for a 2013 change in patent law specifying that anyone who gets an adverse judgment from the patent office has the right to appeal to the federal circuit. But the decision makes clear that the constitutional requirements for legal standing still apply, says Kevin Bastian, a patent attorney Kilpatrick Townsend & Stockton in San Francisco, California. “You have to have some skin in the game, as it were,” he says.If it stands, the decision guarantees “a shorter and more certain resolution” for groups hoping to fight patents on political or ideological grounds, says Konstantin Linnik, a patent attorney at Nutter McClennen & Fish in Boston. Without a chance for such groups to appeal to the circuit court, “now it becomes a binary deal: You can win or you can lose at the patent office.” Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*)

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