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Anthony still makes impact for Batang Pier on off shooting night

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first_imgRedemption is sweet for Ginebra, Scottie Thompson Brian Heruela arrival bolsters Phoenix backcourt, defense Lights inside SMX hall flicker as Duterte rants vs Ayala, Pangilinan anew MOST READ Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard PLAY LIST 02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award View comments Angelique Kerber wins 8th match in a row, into Sydney final The Fil-Am forward collected a unique assists-rebounds double-double in the win, finishing with 13 boards and 12 dimes, a first since Chris Ross did it in 2010.His role as the stabilizing force allowed GlobalPort to claim the 78-70 breakthrough victory over Rain or Shine  in the 2018 PBA Philippine Cup.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSTim Cone, Ginebra set their sights on elusive All-Filipino crownSPORTSGinebra beats Meralco again to capture PBA Governors’ Cup titleSPORTSAfter winning title, time for LA Tenorio to give back to Batangas folk“Rebounding is always gonna be there for me. It’s a conscious effort thing,” he said after  making up for his paltry 1-of-11 shooting with his unwavering effort all over the court.“I couldn’t hit my open shots and there were a lot of help defense. There was a lot of height on Rain or Shine so I was just trying to find the open guy and set up my teammates, trying to do the right plays. For me, it’s getting my teammates involved and it was great to see them hit those shots.” Meralco ‘never the same’ after Almazan injury in PBA Finals Photo by Tristan Tamayo/ INQUIRER.netFresh from his career third-best 29-point explosion in the GlobalPort’s 97-104 defeat against Ginebra last Sunday, the version Sean Anthony who came to play on Friday had a lot of difficulty putting the ball through the hoop.But rather than mope over his offensive struggles, Anthony put his focus on the dirty work for the Batang Pier.ADVERTISEMENTcenter_img LATEST STORIES Scottie Thompson also worthy of Finals MVP, thinks Cone OSG plea to revoke ABS-CBN franchise ’a duplicitous move’ – Lacson OSG plea to revoke ABS-CBN franchise ’a duplicitous move’ – Lacson Steam emission over Taal’s main crater ‘steady’ for past 24 hours Jiro Manio arrested for stabbing man in Marikina Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. While GlobalPort also clicked on offense, Anthony knew what exactly what GlobalPort did right to finally join the winners circle.“We hadn’t held a team below a hundred the first two games, and [Against] Rain or Shine, to hold a high-powered offense to just 70 points? That’s the key right there. Defense more than offense. I had a really off night shooting-wise but our defense was there. And that’s all that really matters. We need to keep up our defense and we just got to sustain it every game.”Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Nextlast_img read more

Martina to Contest SWAL Presidency

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first_imgThe vice president of the Sports Writers Association of Liberia, Martina Brooks has said that due to her relentless desire to take the association to the next level, she will contest the next leadership of SWAL as president“This is a well thought and calculated decision,” she said at a press conference last week in Monrovia.She noted, “Our impeccable record of dedicated service to the institution speaks for us.”She explained that she understands the internal workings of SWAL and am prepared and well equipped for the task.“This is our territory,” Martina said, and borrowing words from President Ellen Sirleaf, noted, “I will be a candidate and I will be a more formidable candidate.”She said her interest is for the betterment of SWAL, a journey began two years ago as vice president.“Looking back two years ago, I will say we made some strides but again, more needs to be done,” she said.On SWAL’s achievement, she said, “We established a charity program, Helping Today’s Kids Become Tomorrow Stars,’ and identified with several schools, orphanages, and slum communities with and sporting materials.”She added: “One of our major achievements as an institution was the role we played in the passage of The Sports Academy Bill.”Without going into details, she attacked what she claimed as “fallacious, misguided and half-baked reports” against her, and said they were slanderous and untruth.“I have never owed SWAL a penny,” she said.“I remain fervently committed to doing what I love to do best, to serve SWAL and no amount of distraction, lies and cheap talk will sway me away from achieving such goal,” she said.The SWAL elections are set on January 24 in Monrovia. Others in the presidential contests are Mr. Richard Manuba and Mr. Leroy M. Sonpon, lll.The debate is set on Wednesday, tomorrow at the PUL on Clay Street, Monrovia.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)last_img read more

Urey Concerned over Number of Excess Ballots

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first_imgUrey with Chief Imam of Liberia, Ali Krayee“While we know there are excess ballot papers always, this number is alarming. Firstly, no one expects the entire 2.1 million registered voters to vote on October 10th and so there is no need to bring more than 20 percent excess ballot papers,” Mr. Urey said.The ALP standard-bearer said he believes that about 75 to 80 percent of the registered voters will show up for the elections to vote, which already indicates that there will be some extra ballot papers.Mr. Urey hoped that representatives from political parties, elections’ observers and the international community will be there to supervise the distribution of the ballots and ensure that the excess ballots are fully monitored.“We believe this election should be free, fair, transparent and peaceful because most often we don’t talk about the peaceful aspect. Most often, the international community is only concerned about whether the elections were peaceful, but the ALP looks forward to free, fair and transparent elections,” Mr. Urey said.Commenting on the generational change issue, Mr. Urey said while he agreed with the president’s views, it should be about people who are prepared and qualified educationally.This, he said, “can be time for younger people to take over the government, but they must be competent young people. The president needed to include competent, qualified and experienced and not just on generational change because we want to change.”On the Imams’ visit, he said “We are privileged to receive some eminent personalities. We have some time to explain to them how we believe they should be part of this entire process and they are able to listen to us.”The ALP also explained its role and contributions to the Muslim community over the years, which some have admitted to and noted that the ALP will continue to work with all Liberians.The Chief Imam, Ali Krayee, said they were pleased to visit the ALP standard bearer and also to pray with him ahead of the elections.He said the Imam Council of Liberia will continue to work in the interest of Liberia, even after the elections, to ensure that Liberia is peaceful.“We always say that those who serve and work in the humanity of God must pray for God to continue to bless us and we are pleased that the ALP can request our presence and to highlight some of the things done within the Muslim community,” Imam Karyee said.“We heard that elections’ observers are in Liberia now, especially international observers and many times, they are interested in the process of vote casting and the way the results come out. This time, we don’t want them to just observe the casting of the votes, but to also assure us that what transpires at polling centers actually continue to the head office of NEC where the results will be announced,” Imam Karyee said.Religious communities have increased their involvement in the political development leading to the October 10th elections. They have appealed to God to bless electorates to avoid anything that could lead the country into unnecessary events. The Christian community has supplicated to God, urging Christians to demonstrate love for country and work together with other faiths, particularly the Muslim Community, to ensure sustainable peace for the country.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Urey interacts with imams, explains ALP contributions to Muslim Community“It tends to undermine conduct of peaceful elections,” he says.Although the National Elections Commission (NEC) chairman Jerome G. Korkoya has clarified the commission’s decision to bring in excess presidential ballots for the October 10 elections, the standard bearer of the opposition All Liberian Party (ALP), said the excess ballot papers is alarming.Korkoya’s explanation was in response to comments and questions from the public regarding the commission’s decision to bring into the country nearly one million excess presidential ballots.But Mr. Benoni Urey said the excess ballot papers were something to keep the public in worry, “Because it tends to undermine the conduct of the peaceful elections.”Mr. Urey made the comments yesterday in Monrovia when a group of Imams, headed by Liberia’s Chief Imam Ali Krayee, visited him to pray ahead of the upcoming elections, on the ALP’s invitation.last_img read more

Guyana-born Dr Narendra Singh receives honarary Law Doctorate

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first_imgRecognised for his extraordinary humanitarian contributions and as a healthcare leader, Schulich alumnus and physician, Dr Narendra Singh, received an honorary doctor of laws from the Canada-based York University on Monday during the morning Spring Convocation ceremony.Dr Singh has devoted his career as a physician to global paediatric and neonatal healthcare. He recently retired as Chief-of-Staff at Humber River Hospital in Toronto, Canada to direct his efforts full-time to the Guyana Help the Kids (GHTK); an initiative he founded in 2009 that has drastically reduced infant mortality rates.He credited his achievements to a strong support system.“I’m receiving this honorary doctorate of laws, but I’m somewhat conflicted since my success… is the combined effort of many people, some in the audience today… and so I would like to share this degree with them,” Singh said in his address to the convocation.Honorary degree recipient, Dr Narendra SinghMusing over how to inspire a generation in the age of advanced technology, with “everything at their fingertips,” Singh chose to focus on what he learned from a long life and career.He spoke to the graduates about the life lessons he learned on his own journey to success, and highlighted three main points: the importance of family, personal qualities for success, and the importance of giving back.Two guarantees in life, he suggested, are that everyone will experience good times and bad times. He then asked the graduates “when adversity strikes, and it will strike, my question to you is who will be there?”He spoke of his own support from his parents, and how after completing specialty medical training, he was offered an exciting job in the United States, but took a less exciting opportunity closer to home in Ontario to be near his parents and two brothers.Though his career could have taken a drastically different turn had he accepted the position offered in the US, he believes he still did well and attributes his success to putting family over career.“I will say to you unequivocally: your career will flourish if you’re happy and surrounded by loved ones like you are today,” he told the graduates, urging those who doesn’t have the same fortune of nearby family to find and build their families.“We are all connected and the stronger and healthier our relationships are, the more grounded, resilient and, ultimately, successful we can be,” he said.Dr Singh also spoke of personal qualities that drive success, including good interpersonal skills and humility, and shared a personal memory of his to highlight that.He recalled as a child in Guyana, at age six or seven, being one of the lowest ranked students in the class. Remembering the support of his family and how he did initially struggle, he also recalled that with hard work, his grades began to improve.“My point is that when you look at people who have done really well, finally, in their lives, their grades don’t necessarily explain all of it,” he said.Singh also urged graduates to let their accomplishments speak for themselves. “Consider team success, not personal success; sing the praises of others, not your own,” he said.Giving back is also a driver toward success, according to Dr Singh, who runs a charity to save the lives of infants. “Being successful also means helping others to achieve their success … so make sure that you leave room in your life for giving back,” he noted.And, while make a big contribution is important, Singh circled back to the sentiment that family is the stepping stone to a happy, fulfilling and successful life. “Give first to your family with your time and attention. You only have one chance. Invest in your family, hone your skills and wait for the right time to do the big things,” he said.The honorary degree was conferred before graduates in the Faculty of Health, including students belonging to the first cohort to graduate from York’s Global Health programme.“It is a marvellous synergy that someone with such an outstanding body of work in global health is here as we celebrate our first graduates of the global health programme,” said York University Chancellor, Greg Sorbara of Singh.Only recently, Singh was sitting in the audience among students when he graduated from the Schulich/Kellogg Executive MBA programme. He commended the programme Dean, Dezsö J Horváth, and faculty for making it the number one executive MBA programme in Canada and noted the programme’s global high ranking.In addition to leading Guyana Help the Kids, Dr Singh is also a consultant paediatric intensivist at Doctors Hospital of Renaissance in Texas, USA. He has received numerous awards, including the Meritorious Service Medal of Canada; the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons Award “Prix de Excellence/Specialist of the Year”; and the Professionalism Award from the Government of Guyana.last_img read more

Griffith Park reopens

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first_imgWhile the area slowly began returning to normal Saturday, stark signs of the fire remained as the smell of ash hung in the air and the once densely wooded hillsides above the zoo were charred black and grey. Attractions near the most badly burned sections of the park also remained closed, including the Merry-go-Round and Crystal Springs picnic area, the Vermont Canyon picnic area and tennis complex, the bird sanctuary and Roosevelt Golf Course. Officials said they hoped most of the park could be reopened by Monday. On Saturday, attractions on the northeast side of the park were mostly open, including the two big golf courses, Wilson and Harding, the Autry National Center and the zoo across the street. “It’s good to see people are able to overcome it and come back to the park to enjoy it,” said Nick Tejeda of Agoura Hills, who was at the zoo with his friend Molly Mejia. GRIFFITH PARK – Hundreds of visitors flocked back to Griffith Park on Saturday, the first day that attractions including the Los Angeles Zoo, the observatory and pony rides were open to the public after a massive brush fire scorched the area. Several park employees said there appeared to be fewer than half as many visitors as on a normal Saturday, possibly because many residents didn’t realize the park had reopened. “It looks very stark, like a bomb went off,” said Sue Conway of Burbank, who rides her bicycle in Griffith Park every week but found her usual routes closed off Saturday because of the fire damage. “I usually go up into the hill area. I can get on my bike and disappear into the wilderness,” she said. “Today I almost didn’t come because I was worried about the air quality.” The fire broke out Tuesday afternoon and burned more than 800 acres before it was contained Friday. Marathon runner Anne Dailey of Glassell Park said she frequently trains in the park, but found her normal routes still blocked Saturday. Instead, she ran back and forth on Zoo Drive. George Angulo of Glassell Park was at Travel Town on Saturday, holding a birthday party for his sons Tobias, 3, and Lucas, 1. “I hear they have eight birthday parties today,” Angulo said. “I’m sure a lot of folks are relieved the park reopened today. When we heard it might be closed, Tobias was pretty upset. We have 40 guests, with about 20 kids.” Eric Kintz of Hollywood was at Travel Town with his wife Soline, and their children Benjamin, 2, and Alexa, 1, and his mother, Mira. “He loves trains,” Kintz said of Benjamin. But he said it was sad to see so much of the park destroyed. “We hike a lot in the park, to Dante’s View,” he said. “It’s really too bad.” Michelle Wood of La Crescenta was there holding a birthday party for her 5-year-old son Anthony and his sister Allison, 2. “This is Anthony’s favorite place on earth,” she said. A few miles down the road, the crowd was less than half the normal size for the pony rides, which have been a Griffith Park attraction since 1948. Flames burned within about 100 yards of the pony-ride area Tuesday night and the 75 ponies were moved to a corral down Crystal Springs Drive closer to Los Feliz Boulevard. “This whole area was unbelievable. The flames were shooting up hundreds of feet in the air. The embers were coming down like rain,” said Nick Bronk, general manager of the Griffith Park pony rides. “The ponies were pretty worked up. They’re all fine now,” he said. “The Fire Department did a great, great job.” eric.leach@dailynews.com (805) 583-7602160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!last_img read more

Red brain versus blue brain? It’s a snap, study says

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first_imgThe finding adds new support to an old theory that our political views spring partly from how our brains work. “Political attitudes are dispositional in nature, almost more like personalities. They’re not necessarily a choice,” said the study’s lead author David Amodio, a professor of psychology at New York University. On top of that, political attitudes seem correlated with certain skills and behaviors. Liberals were better at the kind of decision making that Amodio and his co-authors measured, leaving him anxious to point out in an interview that perhaps conservatives excel at other things. “I tried to write this paper in a very politically agnostic way,” he said, adding that he wished reporters would quit asking whether he’s liberal or conservative. When pressed, he calls himself “an open-minded political moderate.” By Carrie Peyton Dahlberg SACRAMENTO BEE In a country sometimes fraught with tension between red states and blue states, neuroscience is suggesting an even deeper divide: red brains and blue ones. Liberals and conservatives use a key part of the brain differently when confronted with snap decisions that involve overriding a habit, according to a recent study published in Nature Neuroscience. 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!last_img read more

RTE TO SHOW DONEGAL’S ALL-IRELAND HEROICS IN SPECIAL ‘JIMMY’S WINNING MATCHES’ DOCUMENTARY

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first_imgDONEGAL’S All-Ireland heroes are set to feature in a special documentary to be broadcast tomorrow night.We showed you a teaser video for the documentary on RTE at the weekend. Here it is again.‘Jimmy’s Winning Matches’ looks at Jim McGuinness’s two years in charge of the Donegal squad, taking them from THAT defeat to Armagh in 2010 to two Ulster titles and the Sam Maguire.McGuinness gives CocoTelevision an exclusive interview from his home in Glenties. There are also interviews with captain Michael Murphy, marksman Colm McFadden and Player of the Year Karl Lacey.Rory Kavanagh, Paul Durcan, Neil and Eamon McGee, Paddy McGrath, Martin and Mark McHugh Durcan also share their thoughts. Rory Gallagher, the Kilcar native, whose ‘Jimmy’s Winning Matches’ was the theme tune to the victory, also gives the background to the growth of his song – first shown on Donegal Daily!‘Jimmy’s Winnin’ Matches’ will be screened on RTE One television on Thursday, January 3rd at 9.35pm, and will be available to watch on the island of Ireland on the RTE Player. RTE TO SHOW DONEGAL’S ALL-IRELAND HEROICS IN SPECIAL ‘JIMMY’S WINNING MATCHES’ DOCUMENTARY was last modified: January 2nd, 2013 by BrendaShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:RTE TO SHOW DONEGAL’S ALL-IRELAND HEROICS IN SPECIAL ‘JIMMY’S WINNING MATCHES’ DOCUMENTARYlast_img read more

Around Whittier

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first_imgPICO RIVERA – A man shot multiple times in an apparent gang attack in Pico Rivera remained in critical condition with a chest wound Monday, a deputy said.Sergio Orozco was standing in the 4900 block of Church Street about 10:20 p.m. Saturday when three men in a brown station wagon pulled up and yelled, “Where you from?” said Deputy Rich Pena of the sheriff’s Headquarters Bureau.One of the suspects then fired multiple rounds from a handgun, he said. Safety group meets at Whittier school WHITTIER – The MASH Neighborhood Watch Group is holding a Neighborhood Watch meeting at 6:30 p.m. today at Telechron School, 11200 Telechron Ave.Residents are invited to come and talk to representatives of different Los Angeles County departments.For more information, call (562) 698-7645. Teacher’s group celebrates holidays WHITTIER – California Retired Teacher’s Association Division 31 invites retired teachers to its Holiday Celebration at 11 a.m. today at the Greenleaf Masonic Center, 12001 Beverly Blvd.There will be a sing-along, scholarship bake sale, games and prizes and lunch. Barbershop quartet The Winning Combination will perform.For more information, call Barbara Nichols at (562)696-4474. Guests invited to potluck meeting WEST WHITTIER – The West Whittier Community Advisory Committee meeting and potluck will take place at 6:30 p.m. today at Sorensen Park, 11419 Rosehedge Drive.Guests are asked to bring their favorite dish to serve. Entertainment will be Mariachi Del Oro Angelino.For more information, call Lt. Chris Reed or Deputy Allen Castellano at the sheriff’s Pico Rivera Station, (562)949-2421. La Mirada offers special certificates LA MIRADA – The city Community Services Department is offering gift certificates for any recreation class or program offered by the city.Certificates come in denominations of your choice.Visit the La Mirada Resource Center, 13710 La Mirada Blvd., to make your purchase.For more information, call (562) 943-7277. Group to hold holiday party WHITTIER – Awakenings, a substance-abuse recovery program for deaf and hearing-impaired persons, will present a Christmas party from 5 p.m. to midnight Friday at Teta Smart’s School of Dance, 6745 S. Milton Ave.There will be a raffle and Christmas gifts for children, prizes, music and more.Admission is $10 for adults, $5 for children 2 to 15.For more information, call (562) 947-3835, or for TDD, (562) 947-4833. Macintosh users to meet Thursday WHITTIER – Whittier Area Macintosh Users Group will meet at 6:30 p.m. Thursday at Temple Beth Shalom. Rear parking is at 14579 Mulberry Drive.For more information, call (562) 943-4919. From staff reports AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MORERose Parade grand marshal Rita Moreno talks New Year’s Day outfit and ‘West Side Story’ remake160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!last_img read more

PACKIE AND SHAY TO HOST A CELEBRATION OF DONEGAL FOOTBALL

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first_imgGoalkeeping legends Packie Bonner and Shay Given to host a celebration of Donegal football this October in Ballybofey.Packie and ShayAs part of the Donegal Gathering 2013, Goalkeeping legends Packie Bonner and Shay Given are coming home to Donegal to host a unique ‘Legends and Heroes Celebration Day’.The sporting public are invited to join our two famous net minders for “Heroes and Legends’, a day and evening dedicated to the distinguished list of Donegal soccer players who took on the brave challenge of going overseas to pursue a career in football. The day will commence with a Golf Classic on Sunday October 6th at 1pm, in Ballybofey & Stranorlar Golf course. Afterwards there will be a Gala evening at 7pm in the Villa Rose Hotel, Ballybofey followed by music featuring our very own Mickey Joe Harte and Guests. This event is in association with the Friends of Letterkenny General Hospital and Finn Harps Youth Programme.Football fans who attend will get the opportunity to join star names such as the always engaging Ray Houghton, and a number of household stars from the football world for a day of Golf and entertainment.Packie Bonner said he is looking forward to hosting the special day.“We felt it was important that the Donegal gathering included a keystone event which would bring the football family together to share our passion for the game. Whilst recognising the invaluable role local Donegal Clubs played in the development of football and talent. I am looking forward to a great day”. Co-Host Shay Given said “I am delighted to be coming home and joining everyone for ‘Legends & Heroes’. Donegal has always been a hotbed for producing talent and that is a direct result of the huge time and effort put in by coaches and volunteers across the County. A gathering of football people for an informal and enjoyable evening is a great idea and I am really looking forward to being part of it all”.On behalf of the Donegal Gathering Paddy Harte said “I am thrilled that Packie and Shay are hosting what is going to be a very special occasion. It’s going to be wonderful to have so many renowned players, coaches, administrators from the Donegal football family come together to celebrate a common love for the game.”Further information available from Villa Rose Hotel: 074 9132266.  PACKIE AND SHAY TO HOST A CELEBRATION OF DONEGAL FOOTBALL was last modified: September 10th, 2013 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)last_img read more

Language Is Not a Simple Genetic Matter

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first_imgIt sounds so simple.  The title on an article in PhysOrg announced, in Kipling Just-So Story Format, “How gorilla gestures point to evolution of human language.”  Because gorillas have an extensive repertoire of over 100 gestures, human conversation was only a matter of evolutionary time.  Is this mere storytelling, or do such explanations have scientific validity?  Can the changes necessary for human language be found in the genes?    The FOXP2 gene is often singled out as crucial to the evolution of human language, because mutations in that gene lead to speech defects in humans.  The recently published Neanderthal genome (see National Geographic News) showed that Neanderthals had the same FOXP2 gene we have.  “This gene is involved in linguistic development, suggesting that Neanderthals could talk,” the article said.  No one has shown, however, that FOXP2 is a necessary or sufficient cause for the origin of language – such an inference is hopelessly simplistic (see 05/26/2004, 02/21/2008).  For example, a defective power supply in a radio that renders it inoperable does not explain the communication heard when it works.  Is there more than genetics involved in the origin of our language capacity?  How could we know?Cultural selection and synergy    In an essay in Nature,1 E�rs Szathm�ry and Szabolcs Sz�mad� argued that “Language evolved as part of a uniquely human group of traits, the interdependence of which calls for an integrated approach to the study of brain function.”  It’s more than the ability to recognize words.  Your dog can do that.  They said, “more than any other attribute, language was probably key to the development of the set of traits that makes humans unique.”  These two authors proposed that social factors were much more important than genes in the development of language.  “Cultural evolution has shown us that one word can be worth a thousand genes,” they said.  But how can that explain language in a Darwinian paradigm?  It almost sounds Lamarckian – the discredited hypothesis of inheritance of acquired characteristics.  Here’s how they tied it in to Darwinism:That the genes involved in a cognitive trait affect other traits, and have effects that interact with each other, is business as usual for complex behaviour.  But the result is likely to be a network of interacting effects, in which evolution in one trait builds on an attribute already modified as a by-product of selection acting on another.  The nature of the gene networks underpinning complex behaviour suggests that several genes will have been selected for because they enhanced proficiency in a range of tasks – whether in social, linguistic or tool-use domains.Language emerged, they said, at the same time humans were learning to fish and hunt big game and make stone tools.  It was a by-product of the co-option of existing genes for vocalization being selected for new uses, they suggested.  This all happened at a time when major evolutionary changes were occurring simultaneously:The probable emergence of modern language in the context of these other capacities points to the evolution of a uniquely human set of traits.  We’ve barely begun to probe the architecture of this ‘suite’, but there is little to suggest that each capacity evolved one by one, or that they could be lost independently without harming at least some other traits in the set.But is this explanation helpful for elucidating what actually happened, or does it shield itself from falsification in the noise of complexity?  Creationists would say God designed all these traits to work together.  These evolutionists did appeal to evidence, but then only for the interdependence of the traits, not their origin: “Evidence supporting the close-knit evolution of traits comes, for example, from experiments showing that people who struggle with grammar also have difficulties drawing hierarchical structures, such as a layered arrangement of matches.”  They also said that tool-making and language appear related.  But such linkages do not necessarily point to evolution as the only explanation.    Szathm�ry and Sz�mad� used their hypothesis to weave a seamless story of the transition from genetic evolution to cultural evolution:The evidence strongly suggests that language evolved into its modern form embedded in a group of synergistic traits.  However, language almost certainly holds special status over the other traits in the set.  More than any other attribute, language is likely to have played a key role in driving genetic and cultural human evolution.    Language enables us to pass on cultural information more efficiently than can any other species.  It’s taken about 40 million years, for example, for five agricultural systems to appear in fungus-growing ants.  Human agriculture diversified on a massive scale in just a few thousand years.  Language makes it easier for people to live in large groups and helps drive cumulative cultural evolution – the build-up of complex belief systems, and the establishment of laws and theories over several generations.  It has allowed us to construct a highly altered social and physical world, which has in turn shaped our evolution.  Cultural evolution has shown us that one word can be worth a thousand genes.  Language was the key evolutionary innovation because it built on important cognitive prerequisites and opened the door to so much else.It appears they just said that their own reasoning evolved from cultural evolution which evolved from genetic evolution.  Can those gaps be bridged so easily?  Can one shift the hot potato of explanation between genes and culture as required to keep the story going?Exaptation: Dissing Darwin    Robert Berwick raised questions about this in a commentary in PNAS,2 “What genes can’t learn about language.”  He opened with this very issue: “Human language has long been viewed as a product of both genes and individual external experience or culture, but the key puzzle has always been to assess the relative contribution of each.”  He asked whimsically if language evolution is more like hemline fashions (culture) or the fingers on one’s hand (genetics).  There must be an interplay of both, because we know every child is born ready to learn a language, but those who learn Hindi cannot understand those who speak Mandarin.    Berwick’s solution leaned toward cultural evolution.  The reason is that genetic evolution is too slow to keep up with the rapid changes known to occur in human language.  One finding he cited “runs counter to one popular view that these properties of human language were explicitly selected for,… instead pointing to human language as largely adventitious, an exaptation, with many, perhaps most, details driven by culture.”  (An exaptation means a trait not acquired by natural selection – presumably through a trait that predisposed a creature toward an adaptation).  The upside is that it means the set of genes devoted to language can be greatly reduced.  “There is no need, and more critically no informational space, for the genome to blueprint some intricate set of highly-modular, interrelated components for language, just as the genome does not spell out the precise neuron-to-neuron wiring of the developing brain.”  The downside is that classical Darwinian natural selection had little to do with it.    Berwick recognized the controversy this position is likely to raise: “such a result may prove surprising to Darwinian enthusiasts who see the hand of natural selection everywhere,” he admitted, but he had an even “more startling” ramification to unleash: a convergence between the views of two groups often at variance with one another: cultural evolutionists and theoretical linguists.  Recent models by subsets of these camps can make do with a “minimal human genome for language.”  Is this an evolutionary coup?String Theory and Semantics    One thing remains: explaining the “hallmark of human language,” recursive concatenation.  This is our unique ability to combine words into new entities that can be treated as a single object, then combined again over and over.  This ability, which provides us “an infinity of possible meaningful signs integrated with the human conceptual system,” is lacking in animals.  With it, though, we have “the algebraic closure of a recursive operator over our dictionary.”  We have “infinite use of finite means.”  How could genes or culture explain this capability?  Berwick merely states that it does: “the claim that human language is an exaptation rather than a selected-for adaptation becomes not only much more likely but very nearly inescapable.”  Believe it or not.    Actually, the coup is not over yet.  Berwick ended with two caveats about “What models can’t tell us about language evolution.”  The cultural-evolution model would expect all aspects of human language to rise and fall like hemlines, but “Indeed, as far back as we can discern, human languages have always been just as complicated and fixed along certain dimensions.”  There’s a difference, for example, between a sound and its value.  There is no necessary connection between what our genes allow us to pronounce and what we mean by the sound.  Exaptation merely assumes what it needs to prove: the “promiscuous recursion harnessed to our conceptual dictionary” that makes language so endlessly expressive.Why Confirm What We Already Know?    The second caveat is even more alarming.  Berwick said we can never know how language evolved:Second, there remain inherent restrictions on our ability to ferret out biological adaptation generally and see into the past, more so than is sometimes generally acknowledged, simply because of limits on what we can measure given the signal-to-noise ratio of evolution by natural selection, and similarly constraining what computer simulations like the one in this issue of PNAS can ever tell us.  Since the pioneering study in ref. 11 we know that cultural evolution can sweep through populations as quickly as viral infections.  By comparison, evolution by natural selection is orders of magnitude slower and weaker, its effects on gene frequencies easily swamped by the migration of even a few individuals per generation.  Practically, this means that although we know without a doubt that adaptive selection has been involved in the shaping of certain traits, language being one of them, the data to establish this fact conclusively remains methodologically out of reach simply because it is infeasible to collect the requisite experimental evidence.  To take a far more secure case than language, although we have long known that human blood group differences confer certain reproductive evolutionary advantages, geneticists have estimated we would require the complete age-specific birth and death rate tables for on the order of 50,000 individuals to confirm what must certainly be true.  Given the great costs coupled with the relatively small benefits of confirming what we already know, the pragmatic nature of science wins out and there is simply little enthusiasm in carrying forward the exercise.By portraying language evolution as something “we already know,” Berwick has insulated it from the need for empirical evidence.  Indeed, he generalized this to all cases of evolutionary adaptation, not just language.  If the signal-to-noise ratio of natural selection is so low as to be undetectable, is evolution a science, or a belief?  Notice the phrase “story line” in his ending paragraph:Consequently, it is probably safe to say that neither this nor any other confirmation of adaptive advantage for one or another particular evolutionary story line about human language, no matter how compelling or how internally consistent its computer simulation logic, will be immediately forthcoming.  To be sure, computer simulations can still establish boundary conditions on evolvability via the Balwin�Simpson effect or set directions for further inquiry, and Chater et al. succeed admirably.  Nonetheless, we should remain ever alert that there are always restrictions on restrictions, that neither this study nor others like it can tell us how human language actually evolved.1.  E�rs Szathm�ry and Szabolcs Sz�mad�, “Being Human: Language: a social history of words,” Nature 456, 40-41 (6 November 2008) | doi:10.1038/456040a.2.  Robert C. Berwick, “What genes can’t learn about language,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, February 10, 2009, 106:6, pp 1685-1686, doi:10.1073/pnas.0812871106.Those last two block quotes are worth reading carefully.  For Darwin skeptics, the evidence could hardly be more clear: evolution is a belief imposed on the evidence, not a belief derived from the evidence.  Since there is no way they could possibly test their belief, evolutionists begin with the assumption of evolution and work everything into their chosen paradigm: fragmentary evidence, elusive hints of signal in a noise (like the FOXP2 gene, inferences from which are as likely to deceive as enlighten), and copious amounts of imagination and storytelling.  Since “we already know” by collective agreement that Darwin reigns and creationism is out, what need have we of proof?, they think.  They have tossed verification out the window.  Like communist dictators behind a wall, they have awarded themselves offices for life and comfy quarters for speculating endlessly without fear of contradiction.  Evidence, like the peasantry, becomes subservient to the State.  Damaging evidence has been filtered out by the State-run press.  The regime is self-promoting, self-serving, and self-perpetuating.Time for a revolution.(Visited 17 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more